Cellular injury, cell adaptation & cell death pathology study of structural & functional changes in cells, tissues, & organs uses scribd is the world's largest social reading and publishing site. Cell damage (also known as cell injury) is a variety or changes of stress that a cell suffers due to external as well internal environmental changes among other causes, this can be due to physical, chemical, infectious, biological, nutritional or immunological factors. 1 2 chapter 1 cell injury, cell death, and adaptations responses are hypertrophy, hyperplasia, atrophy, and metaplasia if the adaptive capability is exceeded or if the.
Apoptosis is enactment of a program for single-cell death, often on the instructions of a developmental program or t-killer cell, or in the setting of otherwise-sublethal cell injury, ie, the body is removing unwanted cells. Cell death after traumatic brain injury (tbi) is a major cause of neurological deficits and mortality understanding the mechanisms of delayed post-traumatic cell loss may lead to new therapies that improve outcome. Cell injury forms include hypoxic injury, chemical injury and oxidative stress hypoxia is the insufficiency of oxygen, without oxygen the body cannot keep its tissue healthy and that can lead to tissue death and organ system failure.
Apoptosis (from ancient greek ἀπόπτωσις falling off) is a form of programmed cell death that occurs in multicellular organisms biochemical events lead to characteristic cell changes and death. Cell injury often starts with atp depletion (this can happen with several types of injury, including hypoxic injury and chemical injury) when there's not enough atp around, the cell membrane pumps don't work well, and sodium and calcium accumulate inside the cell. Necrosis: def spectrum of morphologic changes that follow cell death in living tissue that result from progressive degredative action of enzymes on the lethally injured cell morphologic appearance of necrosis is the result of enzyme digestion & denaturation of proteins.
Cell injury, cell death, and adaptations c h a p t e r c o n t e n t s c h1 a p t e r introduction to necpathology 1 overview of cellular responses to. Types of necrosis and apoptosis definition, caspase programmed cell death bleb fas ligand fat - duration: 12:43 stomp on step 1 61,808 views. Chapter 1 cellular adaptations, cell injury, and cell death 5 if the limits of adaptive response to a stimulus are exceeded, or in certain instances when the cell is exposed to an injuri. Hypoxia is an extremely important and common cause of cell injury and cell death 3 • causes of hypoxia include reduced blood flow (celled ischemia), inadequate oxygenation of the blood due to cardiorespiratory failure, and decreased oxygen-carrying capacity of the blood, as in anemia or carbon monoxide poisoning (producing a stable carbon.
Cell response to injury is not an all-or-nothing phenomenon: the stronger and the longer the stimulus, the larger the damage response to a given stimulus depends on the type, status, and genetic make-up of the injured cell: contrast ischemia in skeletal muscle (tolerates 2 hours) versus cardiac muscle (tolerate 20. Another form of cell death as a result of irreversible injury is known as liquefactive necrosis this type of cell death is characterized by rapid enzymatic degradation of cells into a liquid form. Cell injury may be reversible (sublethal) or irreversible (lethal) reversible injury may require cellular adaptation but the cell survives irreversible injury leads to death of the cell. • discriminate cell adaptation, reversible cell injury and irreversible cell injury (cell death) based on etiology, pathogenesis and histological and ultrastructural.
(3) cell death may occur if the injury is too severe or prolonged cell death is irreversible and may occur by two different processes termed necrosis and apoptosis necrosis is cell death caused by external injury, whereas apoptosis is triggered by intracellular signaling cascades that result in cell suicide. Summarize the cell's response to reperfusion injury emphasizing how reperfusion can exacerbate injury produced by ischemia goal 2: cell death apply knowledge of biochemistry and cellular physiology to differentiate between pathogenic and physiologic mechanisms of cell death, the resulting morphologic appearance and the physiologic and. Abstract the role of calcium in cell injury has been the subject of much recent investigation the movement and redistribution of this cation from extra to intracellular compartments and the calcium shifts between intracellular compartments may well play a determinate role in the cell's reaction to injury.